Moreover, due to the limitation of penetration depth of NIR light in deep tissues, the direct eradication of metastatic cancer cells or metastatic nodules in distant organs with PTT alone remains a great challenge. Tumor metastasis inhibition by imaging-guided photothermal therapy with single-walled carbon nanotubes.
Suppressing the incidence of lung metastasis, prolonged animal survival  The schematic illustration of PTT of cancer metastasis with various PTN. As-prepared nanosheets exhibited a well-defined but tunable surface plasmon resonance peak in the NIR region and enhanced photothermal stability when compared to conventional gold or silver nanostructures [ 3 ].
Independent of the potential formation of aggregates following reduction, the chemical potential of the reducing agent, the amount present and the particular gold salt used, the solvent and reaction temperature are all important factors in determining the nanoparticle quality - the size morphology and uniformity of the product nanoparticles.
It can be therefore reasoned that inhibition of HO-1 reduces the antioxidant level, making cancer cells more sensitive to photothermal heating.
In this work, we developed dual imaging-guided oxidative-photothermal combination nanotherapeutics OPCN consisting of amphiphilic polymers conjugated with zinc protoporphyrin as a HO-1 inhibitor and fluorescent IR as a photothermal agent Deeply penetrating photoacoustic tomography in biological tissues enhanced with an optical contrast agent.
When the oscillation reaches its maximum, this frequency is called the surface plasmon resonance SPR. However, these benefits are only now starting to be realized in the animal experimental studies, and few confirmed in clinical trials.
Although adding targeting ligands to the surface of photothermal nanoparticles could mean additional synthetic steps, costs, and greater regulatory hurdles during good manufacturing practice GMP [ 18 ], the engineering of tumor actively-targeted photothermal nanoparticles holds a greater chance for higher accumulation efficacy of nanoparticles in the tumor site, and will become one of the important directions for research in the next few years.
Their potential for photothermal therapeutics and drug delivery, tempered by the complexity of their biological interactions. Under the guidance of MRI and dark imaging, the regional lymph nodes nearby the primary tumor could be readily mapped, and the metastatic lymph nodes were effectively ablated by NIR irradiation Figure 2 A.
Moreover, on account of the limited penetration depth of NIR light, PTT is unable to treat the metastatic cancer cells in deep distant sites, which is the major reason for high mortality of cancer metastasis.
We believe that the PTT or their combinational therapy can provide an essential promising therapeutic modality and bring new hope to the future fight against cancer metastasis.
In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles. Recently, Zhao et al developed a powerful theranostic platform with bismuth sulfide Bi2S3 nanorods for multimodal imaging-guided PTT of cancer metastasis Figure 2 B [ 45 ].
Image-guided PTT and the combination of thermal therapy with conventional chemotherapy will be other promising research areas, considering that most photothermal nanoparticles are also photoacoustic imaging agents [ 19 ], and the already-demonstrated synergistic effects of thermo-chemotherapy or thermo-radiotherapy [ 20 ].
Multimodal imaging can provide PTT with real-time guidance to treat metastatic disease with greater specificity and sensitivity, enabling better therapeutic planning before and during the operation of PTT [ 44 - 46 ].
A smart and versatile theranostic nanomedicine platform based on nanoporphyrin. According to the scientists, these properties, Adv Drug Deliver Rev. Photothermal ablation of bone metastasis of breast cancer using PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
Integration of photothermal therapy and synergistic chemotherapy by a porphyrin self-assembled micelle confers chemosensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer.
Molecular mechanisms of metastasis in breast cancer-clinical applications. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Development of individualized anti-metastasis strategies by engineering nanomedicines.
In particular, Chen et al designed a thermo- and pH- sensitive polymer functionalized mesoporous silica coated gold nanorods loading DOX for NIR laser-induced targeted cancer therapy Figure 4 A [ 23 ].
The Bi2S3 nanorods could be used as a powerful CT contrast agent for angiography and organic imaging, and also as a PA imaging agent for monitoring of their real-time distribution in tumor sites. Likewise, Kodama et al found that gold nanorods GNRs upon NIR-II laser irradiation could effectively suppress the tumor growth in the proper axillary lymph nodes, providing a potential therapeutic method for treating metastasis in lymph nodes [ 24 ].
Their potential for photothermal therapeutics and drug delivery, tempered by the complexity of their biological interactions.
Through great efforts in developing technology for controlled and localized heating, as well as better understanding of the mechanisms behind temperature-induced cell killing, modern thermal treatment has proven to be effective alone or when combined with other cancer treatments such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy [ 1 ].
These factors lead to a significantly higher concentration of certain particles in a tumor as compared to the rest of the body. Aptamer-conjugated nanorods for targeted photothermal therapy of prostate cancer stem cells. Current Approaches of Photothermal Therapy in Treating Cancer Metastasis with Nanotherapeutics.
Lili Zou 1*, Hong Wang 2*, Bin He 2, Lijuan Zeng 3, Tao Tan 3, Haiqiang Cao 2, Xinyu He 2, Zhiwen Zhang 2, Shengrong Guo 1, Yaping Li 2. 1. School of Pharmacy, Shanghai.
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive therapeutic strategy in which photon energy is converted into heat sufficient to destroy cancer cells. Photothermal therapeutics relatively simple to perform, and having the potential to treat tumors tumors embedded in vital regions where surgical resection is not feasible.
Yujie Su, Yuan Liu, Xiangting Xu, Jianping Zhou, Lin Xu, Xiaole Xu, Dun Wang, Min Li, Kerong Chen and Wei Wang, On-Demand Versatile Prodrug Nanomicelle for Tumor-Specific Bioimaging and Photothermal-Chemo Synergistic Cancer Therapy, ACS Applied Materials &.
cancer site are critical to the success of this therapy. An ideal metal nanostructure to be used in photothermal ablation therapy should have effective delivery. Photothermal therapy (PTT) refers to efforts to use electromagnetic radiation (most often in infrared wavelengths) for the treatment of various medical conditions, including cancer.
This approach is an extension of photodynamic therapy, in which a photosensitizer is excited with specific band light.
BACKGROUND: In order to explore the possibility of treating breast cancer by local photo-therapy, a photothermal agents loaded in situ hydrogel was established. In detail, The Cu2 MnS2 nanoplates were prepared by one-pot synthesis and, the thermosensitive Pluronic F was used as the hydrogel matrix.Photothermal cancer therapy essay